Freshwater wetlands are the hallmark of the Pacific Americas Flyway. Wetlands are subject to periodic flooding and are further characterized by their soil type, hydrology and vegetation. There is an enormous variety of wetland types, such as oxbow lakes, sloughs, wet meadows, emergent marsh, wet prairies and vernal pools. Waterfowl, shorebirds and wetland associated landbirds all take advantage of the food, shelter and nesting habitats provided by different types of wetlands.
In Alaska, many wetlands are characterized by spongy peat deposits, acidic waters, and a top layer of sphagnum moss, grass and sedge. Alaska wetlands are an anomaly, occupying 43% of the land surface compared to 5% of wetlands covering the contiguous United States.
Existing regulatory programs have slowed but not stopped the loss of freshwater wetlands along the Pacific Americas Flyway. Additional conservation measures are still needed to conserve the hundreds of bird species that utilize them seasonally or year-round.
Other Habitats Our Birds Need
Arctic and Subarctic Tundra
Alaska has vast expanses of arctic and subalpine tundra characterized by low temperatures, permafrost, and a short growing season.
Alaska’s boreal forest spans most of interior Alaska. It is a mosaic of evergreens, deciduous trees and shrubs that create a patchwork of ecosystems across the landscape.
Coastal Dunes and Beaches
Coastal dunes and beach communities face a dynamic, harsh environment that requires plants to have unique survival mechanisms.
Conifer forests, including our magnificent temperate rainforests, dominate the Pacific Northwest from California to southeast Alaska.
Estuaries occur where freshwater rivers meet the salt waters of the ocean. They are one of most biologically rich habitats on Earth, thanks to the mixing of nutrients from both the land and sea.
Freshwater wetlands are the hallmark of the Pacific Americas Flyway. Wetlands are subject to periodic flooding and are further characterized by their soil type, hydrology and vegetation.
Hawaiian Montane Forest
‘Ohi’a and in some areas koa trees dominate the canopy of the lush cloud forests found on the higher elevations of Kaua’i, Maui, Hawai’i, O’ahu, and Moloka’i.
Hawaii’s freshwater wetlands support the Ae’o, or Hawaiian Stilt, and five other species of endemic, endangered waterbirds.
Intertidal Rocky Shorelines
Rocky shorelines along the North Pacific coastline occupy the region between high and low tide. They may be rocky cliffs, boulder rubble, wave-pounded shelves, or sheltered rocky shores.
Oak and Prairie
Oak and prairie ecosystems support a unique suite of specialized birds. They are home to a handful of imperiled species such as Streaked Horned Lark and Oregon Vesper Sparrow.
An atoll is a coral reef island, or islets. They are are characteristically ring-shaped with a central lagoon, and sometimes a central island.
Pelagic habitats, one of many habitats in the marine environment, include the open ocean. Birds that spend time in the pelagic zone must be able to withstand the salt water, wind and waves–and some do for years at a time.
Riparian corridors occur along rivers and streams and across floodplains and terraces. Healthy riparian systems have a dense plant cover that provides shade, predator protection, food, and nesting habitat for resident and migratory birds.